A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. It is performed when a patient has a goitre or some other condition of the thyroid gland (such as hyperthyroidism) or a thyroid cancer. Other indications for surgery include cosmetic (very enlarged thyroid), or symptomatic obstruction (causing difficulties in swallowing or breathing). The thyroid gland is butterfly shaped gland located I front of the neck. It secretes the thyroid hormones that help in regulating the metabolism of the body. Depending on the cause of the swelling, the amount of gland that has to be removed is decided. If a part of the gland is left back, there is no need to supplement the thyroid hormones. However if the whole gland id removed, then the patient will require life long thyroid hormone supplementation.